A Review of the piRNA clusters and their role in gene regulation
PiRNA clusters, which are genetic loci that generate small non-codingRNA molecules called piRNAs (piRNA induced silencing of smallRNA), are known to produce small nucleic acids. The regulation of gene expression is a key function of these small RNA molecules, in particular in animals’ germline cells. In 2016, a study revealed that piRNA clusters were “densely packed” arrays of hundreds or thousands of piRNA-encoding genes. They are then transcribed to primary piRNA transcripts. This pptRNA transcription is then converted into the 21-24 nucleotide-long piRNAs by enzymes Drosha and Dicer. PiRNAs can recognize and silence transposons. Transposons are DNA sequences which “jump”, or move from one place in the genome to the next. This is known as transposon silence and it’s important to maintain genome stability. PiRNAs play an important role during transposon silencing. Cont….