Royal Jelly and Female Honeybee Gene Expression by DNA Methylation: The Effect of Royal Jelly
Royal jelly contains a variety of carbohydrates and lipids. It is an important food source in the female honeybee’s development. Studies have shown that royal jelly has a positive effect on the female honeybee’s DNA methylation. This can have significant implications for gene expression. DNA methylation refers to an epigenetic procedure that adds methyl groups (methyl groups) to DNA molecules. This affects gene expression but does not change the underlying genetic sequence. Royal jelly, which has been found to decrease DNA methylation in certain genes of female honeybees (Liang and colleagues, 2016; Vashishtha and colleagues, 2021). The reduction of DNA methylation may have multiple effects on gene expression. It can decrease gene expression which could lead to decreased production of some proteins and other molecules encoded by the genes. It can also increase gene expression which leads to increased productions of genes that encode the gene. Third, it may increase the expression of genes normally not expressed. This can result in novel proteins being produced or new molecules (Liang and al. 2016; Vashishtha and al.,2021). Cont….