Outline five mechanisms which ensure that the information contained in a gene is accurately transcribed and translated into the correct sequence of amino acids in a protein. Briefly explain how each mechanism ensures accuracy in protein synthesis. Accurate Protein Synthesis: Five Mechanisms

Accurate Protein Synthesis: Five Mechanisms 

The precise transcription and translations of genes are essential steps in protein synthesis. There are many mechanisms that can be employed to ensure that the end product is correctly sequenced. We will be looking at five mechanisms to ensure that protein synthesis is accurate. Enzymes that recognize and interpret the sequence of codons in each gene, also known as triplets or nucleotide bases (or codons), are the first method to guarantee accuracy during transcription. They can detect the exact substitution and prevent mistakes (Haran, et al. 2017). Proofreading enzymes are the second mechanism. These enzymes recognize mistakes in transcription and fix them. Exonucleases are enzymes that recognize wrong nucleotides and remove them to make the right ones. (Pereira, et al. (2016) A third option is to use RNA polymerases that contain proofreading domains. These domains detect errors during transcription and stop it from continuing until they are fixed. Cont…

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