How did the Tethys sea, Sundance Sea and Western Interior Seaway form?

Formation of Sundance Sea, Tethys Sea, and Western Interior Seaway

Large bodies of water once connected to each other were the Tethys Sea (Sundance Sea), Western Interior Seaway and Sundance Sea. Plate tectonics caused these seas to form. This led the continents Laurasia, Gondwana and Gondwana separating. The land that was between the two continents split, forming a huge basin which would become the Tethys Sea. (Torsvik et al. 2017). This sea then extended eastward to Laurasia, forming Sundance Sea (Hellman et al. 2018). With the expansion and contraction of the land between these two continents, the Tethys Sea expanded in both its size and depth. This resulted in the development of powerful currents that carried nutrients and sediment far from their respective locations (Hellman, et al. 2018). The sea grew and eventually reached Laurasia’s edges, where it merged with Sundance Sea. It then became a sea that continued onwards, eventually joining the Western Interior Seaway. The result was a huge network of seas connecting across continents (Torsvik and al. 2017).

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