Describe DNA replication in detail. Make sure to include the steps, enzymes or cellular components used, starting materials, what results, and any special features.

DNA Replication: A process of genetic information duplication

The process of copying DNA information from one DNA strand to another is known as DNA replication. It is vital for proper function of all cells and organisms. The DNA double helix’s two strands are split during replication. Each strand acts as a template to form a new double-helix. The process can be catalyzed using a variety of enzymes like DNA polymerase (helicase), and ligase. Single strands from the double helix are used as starting material for DNA replication. The double-helix double helicase is disassembled by Helicase enzyme and the strands are separated. DNA polymerase attaches to the template and then adds nucleotides. These are the building blocks of DNA. They match the nucleotides according to their complementary base pairings, which are adenine/thymine and cellsine/guanine. The ligase enzyme seals the new strand once it has formed. Two identical double helices are formed, one containing the original strand and one containing the newly formed. The process continues until all DNA molecules are replicated. A unique characteristic of DNA replication is that the newly formed strands can form hydrogen bonds to the original strands. It ensures that new strands can be correctly reproduced. A second feature of the DNA replication is its high fidelity, meaning the new strands have a nearly exact replica (Matsuda, Wu, and others, 2018).

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