Analyze and describe the different types of genetic mutations and their effects. Then discuss, in detail, the role played by DNA and RNA in genetic diseases.

Genetic Mutations

A genetic mutation refers to a permanent change in the DNA sequence within an organism, which can then be passed on. This is caused by a structural change that can alter the DNA sequence of the gene, chromosome or product. Mutations can occur spontaneously or can be induced by exposure to certain environmental agents such as radiation or chemicals (Kumar & Chatterjee, 2019). There are several types of genetic mutants. Single-base mutations in DNA can result in single-base substitutions in the amino acids. Frameshift mutations can result in misalignment or insertion of base pairs, which may cause a premature stop codon, or truncated product. Changes in structure or number of chromosomes can cause a wide range of genetic disorders. Essential is the importance of DNA andRNA in the development of genetic diseases. The production of proteins is a function of DNA and RNA, the basic building blocks of our bodies. The structure of a protein can be altered by mutations in DNA and RNA.

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