(a) Outline an approach to detect apoptosis early within a bioreactor cell culture (i.e. online monitoring). (7 marks) (b) Why would inhibiting apoptosis be an approach considered by biopharmaceutical scientists when growing cells in a bioreactor? (3 marks) Online Monitoring of Apoptosis in Bioreactor Cell Culture: A Potential Approach

The potential for online monitoring of apoptosis in bioreactor cell culture: An approach

Programmed cell death (or apoptosis) is an integral part of biology. It is now a major focus in bioprocess design. It is crucial to detect apoptosis early in bioreactor cells. This will allow you to optimize product yield and understand the mechanism of drug action on cells. The use of online monitoring tools is an effective way to spot apoptosis within bioreactor cells. The online monitoring tools can measure various parameters such as cell viability and cell morphology. This allows you to track the progress of your bioprocess, as well as any possible changes in the population. To detect apoptosis, you can use cell morphology changes, like an increase in cell size, or the appearance of apoptotic body (MacMillan and al., 2016). Apoptosis can also be detected by changes in cell viability and cell density, which are indicators of an increase in the number of apoptotic cell in the culture. You can also use various methods to confirm the existence of apoptosis in the cell culture. Annexin V is a fluorescent probe that can detect early apoptotic cell presence. Cont…

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