1. What are the signs a clinician would look for to mark the progression from renal insufficiency to renal failure? What changes should be made to the diet. 2. Why do patients protein needs increase once they reach stage 5 CKD? 3. Kcal recommendations for HD are 35 kcal/kg why? 4. What are signs of fluid overload in HD patients and what are ways to track signs/symptoms during nutrition assessments 5. Why is P restricted in patients on HD and what happens if levels get too high? 6. What are some causes of hypertriglyceridemia in CKD patients and what MNT is suggested? 7. What is the value of checking serum albumin levels in HD patients? The Progression from Renal Insufficiency to Renal Failure: Signs, Diet Changes, and Kcal Recommendations for Hemodialysis Patients

A progression from renal insufficiency or failure: Diet changes, signs, and Kcal recommendations for patients on hemoodialysis 

Both renal insufficiency or kidney failure can cause serious health issues for the affected. The signs and symptoms of kidney insufficiency, or even renal failure, should be identified by clinicians. They can also advise patients on the best diet to avoid the conditions. To ensure adequate nutrition for patients receiving hemodialysis (HD), clinicians must be familiar with the daily kcal requirements. An increase in serum creatinine and a decline in glomerular filter rate (GFR) can be signs that a patient is in renal insufficiency or renal failure. Clinicians should also take note of any changes in the patient’s physical appearance, such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and swelling of the extremities (Goh & Taguchi, 2016). Patients who reach Stage 5 CKD should have their diet modified to ensure they meet the requirements. Cont…

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